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Rules of Ihram
The ihram (for ‘umrah tamattu‘ or hajj tamattu‘ or ‘umrah mufrada) is not valid unless the talbiyya is said together with the niyyat.
The obligatory part of talbiyya is to say “lab-bay-ka Allahumma lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka la sharika laka lab-bay-ka” once. Of course, it is recommended to say that many times as mentioned above.
The validity of ihram does not depend on the ritual purity (taharat) of the individual from the major or minor impurities. So putting on the ihram and saying the talbiyya is valid even if it is done in the state of minor or major impurity like janabat or monthly cycle, etc.
The ghusl done for the ihram at daytime is sufficient till end of the following night; similarly, a ghusl done at nighttime is sufficient till end of the following day. The ghusl for ihram is valid even for a lady who is in her monthly cycle or going through post-natal bleeding, and it is among the major ablutions after which there is not requirement for wudhu for prayers until one does something that invalidates the wudhu.
Similarly, the ghusl for ihram will suffice if a person was required to do the ghusl for janabat or hayd. If something that invalidates the wudhu occurs between the ghusl for ihram and the actual putting on the ihram, then it is recommended to redo the ghusl. Similarly, it is recommended to repeat the ghusl if someone eats or wears something that is haram.
A person who puts on the ihram at Masjidu ’sh-Shajarah is allowed to return back to Medina to take a flight to Jeddah and then travel to Mecca. However, in this case, he should refrain from traveling under a cover which is haram – he can refrain from this prohibition by flying at night when it is not raining.
For a pilgrim who wants to do hajj from Medina’s route, it is necessary, based on obligatory precaution, to put on the ihram at its famous mosque known as Masjidu ’sh-Shajarah itself. It would not be sufficient to put on the ihram outside the mosque except for a lady who is in her monthly cycle or in her postnatal (nifas) days—she will put on the ihram outside the mosque. For those putting on the ihram inside the mosque, any part of the mosque, including the new extended areas, will be sufficient.
The person who has already done the obligatory pilgrimage once and now plans to do another pilgrimage, and wishes that his second pilgrimage be considered either as his obligatory pilgrimage (if the first was not done properly) or as his recommended pilgrimage (if the first was done properly) – what would be his niyyat, intention? His niyyat should be “to do the duty which is required of him/her now” even though he/she does not know whether it is obligatory (wajib) or recommended (mustahab).
All the conditions applicable for the dress for salat are also applicable for ihram such as purity, etc. However, if the ihram becomes impure by an impurity which is excused in salat, then it must be changed or purified. Of course, delay in changing or purifying such an ihram because of unavoidable circumstances is okay.
It is not necessary for the pilgrim to use the same ihram continuously during the pilgrimage. It is permissible for him to take it off for a need or to replace it with another ihram. He is also allowed to add extra pieces over the two ihram pieces to protect himself against cold, etc.