Tawaf is the second of the obligatory rituals of ‘umrah at-tamattu‘ after donning of the ihram. When the pilgrim reaches to Mecca and intends to fulfill the second obligation, he goes to the Sacred Mosque for circumambulating around the Holy Ka‘bah seven times starting from and ending at the Black Stone.
CONDITIONS OF THE TAWAF
The following conditions are to be observed in doing the tawat:
1. The Niyyat: the pilgrim should intend to do the tawaf with total sincerity for the sake of Allah by saying, for example, “I am doing tawaf around the House of Allah seven rounds for the ‘umrah at-tamattu‘ of hajj of Islam to seek pleasure of Allah.” It is not necessary to do the niyyat in so many words, just the intention in the mind is sufficient.
2. Purity: It is necessary for the pilgrim to be ritually pure, i.e., free from the minor and minor defilements. (The major defilement is caused, for example, by sexual intercourse and monthly cycle that require a major ablution; and the minor defilement is caused, for example, by urinating and emptying the bowels that require a minor ablution.) It is appropriate for me to emphasize here that the pilgrim must ensure the correctness of his major ablution (ghusl), his minor ablution (wudhu), and his ritual prayer (salat). He has to ensure this before doing his pilgrimage, and this can be done by getting your method of ghusl, wudhu and salat verified by someone who is trustworthy and learned in this matter. In every hajj caravan, there is someone who can fulfill this role besides the religious scholars, preachers, guides and volunteers who always seek for the opportunity to serve the guests of the Merciful God in the best manner possible.
3. The dress and the body of the pilgrim must be ritually pure.
4. & 5. The male pilgrim must be circumcised, and private parts must be covered during the tawaf.
OBLIGATIONS OF TAWAF
There are eight things obligatory in tawaf:
1. & 2. Each of the seven rounds must begin from the Black Stone and end at the Black Stone. In order to ensure that his tawaf was done properly, he should start the first round a little before the Black Stone and do the niyyat right when he reaches the Stone on his left side. Then he should continue the circumambulation of the Ka‘bah seven times until he passes the Black Stone at the end of the seventh time. This is how he can ensure that he began and ended his tawaf at the Black Stone.
3. Keep the Ka‘bah to his left during the entire tawaf. There is no need to be exactly precise about this since the Prophet (s.a.w.) did the tawaf while he was riding on a camel.
4. Do the tawaf outside the Hijr Isma‘il wall and not go through the passage between the Hijr and the Ka‘bah.
5. Do the tawaf around the Ka‘bah without touching its ledge which is known as Shadhranu ’l-Ka‘bah.
6. Do the tawaf around the Ka‘bah seven times as mentioned earlier.
7. The seven rounds of the tawaf should be continuous without any significant gap between its rounds with the exception of the cases mentioned in the detailed manual of pilgrimage.
8. The movement of the pilgrim around the Ka‘bah should be by his own will and intention even when the crowd is intense. A pilgrim’s ability to move away from the tawaf area is sufficient to prove his “will and intention” in movement even if he isn’t able to stop because of the crowd.
RULES OF TAWAF
1. It is permissible for one to intentionally stop the recommended or the obligatory tawaf in between. If the pilgrim in the obligatory tawaf intends to continue the interrupted tawaf, he can only done that if he had complete four rounds.
2. One cannot do tawafs continuously, i.e., without keeping a gap between the two by doing salatu ’t-tawaf. This is only allowed in case of two recommended tawafs, even though that is makrūh, disliked.
3. If the pilgrim is confused and has doubts about the number of rounds during the tawaf, he is allowed to continue doing his tawaf with the doubt. If he is able to resolve his doubt and ascertain that he has not missed or added any round, then his tawaf is valid. However, if his doubt is not resolved, then his tawaf is invalid.
4. A pilgrim entertains doubts about the number of rounds after having completed the obligatory tawaf: if this doubt happens after a little while (e.g., 10 minutes after the tawaf) or during salatu ’t-tawaf, then his tawaf is considered as valid.
5. If the pilgrim doing a sunnat tawaf has doubt about the number of rounds, then he may assume the lesser of the two numbers and complete his tawaf.
6. If the pilgrim has a doubt about a particular round of tawaf after has finished that round, then he should just ignore that doubt. Rather even if the pilgrim has a doubt about one stage of a round after he has already moved to the next stage, then he should just consider it to be valid.
7. A slight turning of the head or the neck away from the correct direction does not harm the validity of the tawaf. However, based on precaution, one should refrain from a drastic turn towards the back side.
8. The defilement (najasat) of the body or the dress will make the tawaf invalid. Even the slight blood which is normally excused in salat would not be excused in the tawaf––this is based on obligatory precaution.
9. If the pilgrim didn’t know about the impurity of his body or dress during the tawaf and came to know about it later on, his tawaf is valid and there is no need to repeat it.
10. Similarly, if the pilgrim forgot that his body or dress was impure (najis) and he did the tawaf in that condition and remembered it only after finishing the tawaf – his tawaf is valid and there is no need to repeat it.
11. If he came to know about the impurity of his body or dress during the tawaf or the impurity come upon him before finishing the tawaf and it is possible to remove the najasat, then he should remove it and complete his tawaf. If it is not possible to remove it, then he may complete his tawaf as is and there is no need to repeat it.
12. In case of emergency, the najasat on the body or dress of the pilgrim will not harm the tawaf.
13. The cause of minor impurity (like breaking of the wind) will not harm the sunnat tawaf. However, the salat of tawaf must be done in the state of purity even if it is for a sunnat tawaf.
14. If the wudhu of the pilgrim becomes invalid during the tawaf after the 4th round, then he should stop the tawaf, go and renew the wudhu and then continue from where he left. However, if the wudhu becomes invalid before completing the 4th round, then he should go and renew the wudhu and then restart the entire tawaf.
15. A person who is habitually doubtful should ignore his doubts in tawaf just as he is supposed to do so in the state of salat.
16. It is permissible for the pilgrim in tawaf to rely on the counting done by his companion for the number of rounds as long as the companion is himself sure about them.
It is also possible for the pilgrim to use the specific du‘as of the tawaf and consider them as indicators for the number of tawaf that he has done. These du‘as are as follows:
1st Round’s Du‘a:
“Allahumma as’aluka bi ismikal ladhi yumshi bihi ‘ala talilil mai kala yumshi bihi ‘ala judadil ardhi;
as’aluka bi ismikal ladhi yahtazzu lahu ‘arshuka;
wa asaluka bi ismikal ladhi tahtazzu lahu ‘arshuka;
wa as’aluka bi ismikal ladhi tahtazzu lahu aqdamu mala’ikatika;
wa asaluka bi ismikal ladhi da‘aka bihi Musa min janibit tūril ayman, fastajabta lahu walqayta ‘alayhi muhabbatan minka;
wa as’aluka bi ismikal ladhi ghafarta bihi li Muhammadin la taqaddama min dhanbihi wa ma ta’akkhara wa atmamta ‘alayhi ni‘matuka – an tarzuqani khayrad dinya wal akhirah…”
2nd Round’s Du‘a:
“Allahumma inni ilayka faqirun wa inni kha’ifun mustajirun, fa la tughayyir jismi wa la tubaddil ismi.”
Then say: “Sa’iluka faqiruka miskinuka bi babika; fa tasaddaq ‘alayha bil jannah; Allahumma, al-baytu baytuk, wal haramu haramuk, wal ‘abdu ‘abduk, wa hadha maqamul ‘a’idhu bikal mustajiru bika minan nar, fa a‘tiqni wa walidayya wa ahlii wa wuldi , ikhwaniyal mu’minin minan nar, ya jawadu ya karim.”
3rd Round’s Du‘a:
“Allahumma adkhilniyil jannah wa ajirni minan nar bi rahmatika, wa ‘afiniy minas suqmi wa awsi‘ ‘alayya minar rizqil halal, wadra’ ‘anni sharra fasaqatil jinni wal insi, wa sharra fasaqatil ‘arab wal ‘ajam;
Ya dhal manni wat tawli; ya dhal jūdi wal karam; inna ‘amali dha‘ifun fa dha‘ifhu li; wa taqabbilhu minni; innaka antas sami‘ul ‘alim.”
4th Round’s Du‘a:
“Ya Allahu, ya waliyyal ‘afiyah wa khaliqal ‘afiyah wa raziqal ‘afiyah wal mun‘imu bil ‘afiyah wal mutafaddilu bil ‘afiyah ‘alayya wa ‘ala jami‘i khalqika,
ya Rahmanad dinya wal akhirah wa Rahimahuma,
salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa Al-I Muhammad war-zuqnal ‘afiyah wa tamamal ‘afiyah wa shural ‘afiyah fid dinya wal akhirah. Ya arhamar rahimin.”
5th Round’s Du‘a:
“Allahumma inni a‘udhu bika min ‘adhabil qabr wa fitnatihi wa ghurbatihi wa wahshatihi wa dhulmatihi wa dhiqihi wa dhanakihi.
Allahumma adhillani fi dhilli ‘arshika yawma la dhilla illa dhilluka.
Allahumma atina fid dunya hasanatan wa fil akhirati hasanatan wa qina ‘adhaban nar.”
6th Round’s Du‘a:
“Allahummal baytu baytuka, wal ‘abdu ‘abduka, wa hadha maqamul ‘a’idhi bika minan nar.
Allahumma min qablikar rūhu wal faraju wal ‘afiyah.
Allahumma inna ‘amali dha‘ifun, fa dha‘ifhu li; waghfir li mat-tala‘ta ‘alayhi minni wa khafiya ‘ala khalqika; astajiru billahi minan nar.”
7th Round’s Du‘a:
“Allahumma ‘indi afwajan min dhunūb wa afwajan min khataya; wa ‘indaka afwajun min rahmatin wa afwajun min maghfirati; ya manis-tajaba li-abghadhi khalqihi idh qala andhirni ila yawmi yub‘athūna, istajib li.”
Then prayer for what you desire from Allah and then say: “Allahumma qanni‘ni bima razaq-tani, wa barik li fima ataytani.”
COMMON MISTAKES IN TAWAF
1. Sometimes the pilgrim, while doing the tawaf, extends his hand towards the Ka‘bah to touch the corners or other parts of the Ka‘bah. Sometimes he also touches the wall of the Hijr Isma‘il. Based on recommended precaution, this is against the rules of tawaf.
2. Sometimes the pilgrim shortens the tawaf by going through the passage between the Ka‘bah and the Hijr Isma‘il. This is wrong since he invalidates that particular round of the tawaf and it is necessary for him to repeat that one round – this is the ruling even if he had shortened it out of ignorance or forgetfulness.
3. Sometimes the pilgrim while doing the tawaf just entertains a doubt about correctness of the round that he is doing that moment –it is just a doubt and he is not sure of having committed a mistake– and so he ignores that round and starts it again. This invalidates the tawaf, based on precaution, except when it is done out of ignorance.
4. After having completed the seven rounds of the tawaf, sometimes the pilgrim adds one or more rounds on basis of precaution. This is incorrect and based on precaution it renders the entire tawaf invalid except if he was ignorant of this ruling.
Of course, he can cancel his one or more rounds and start the tawaf anew by leaving the tawaf area and doing something else which will indicate that he has cancelled his tawaf, and then he can start the new tawaf.
The above is only when the pilgrim has not yet completed his fourth round of tawaf. After the completion of fourth round, he can just interrupt his tawaf for ten minutes –a gap that will automatically invalidate the tawaf– and then restart his tawaf from the beginning.
5. Some pilgrims do not realize that doing tawaf from the second floor of the Sacred Mosque is not valid because the second floor is higher than the height of the Ka‘bah.
6. Sometimes jama‘at prayers is held in the Sacred Mosque while the pilgrim is doing his tawaf for ‘umrah, and that forces him to interrupt his tawaf and then he joins in the jama‘at. After the prayers, he starts the tawaf from the very beginning thinking that the prayer between the rounds of tawaf invalidated his tawaf.
This is an incorrect notion because the gap in between the rounds of tawaf for sake of joining the jama‘at does not harm the validity of the tawaf. In such a case, he should continue his tawaf from wherever he had stopped for the jama‘at and there is no need for starting it from the beginning.
7. In the same case as above, if the pilgrim did not participate in the jama‘at prayer for whatever reason and stood on the side for ten minutes or more waiting for the jama‘at to end to continue his tawaf – in this case the gap of ten minutes just standing at the side cancels the continuity which an essential condition for validity of the tawaf. In this case, he has to start his tawaf from the very beginning.
8. In a case similar to the two previous situations, sometimes the jama‘at prayer is held between the ending of the tawaf and the beginning of the salat of tawaf, and the pilgrim in this case participates in the jama‘at prayer to do his daily prayer. However, he also thinks that the gap between the tawaf and the salat of tawaf has invalidated his tawaf and so he does the tawaf all over again. This is a wrong understanding. The pilgrim in this case has to proceed with saying the salat of tawaf and not to redo the entire tawaf.
If the pilgrim in a similar case decides not to participate in the jama‘at prayer but waits until it has ended—even then his tawaf is valid and he can proceed to do the salat of tawaf provided the waiting time was not more than normal duration of the jama‘at prayer. But if the waiting time was more than normal, then, based on precaution, he has to do the tawaf all over again.
9. Sometimes, after completing the tawaf, the pilgrim finds that there is a barrier (e.g. a transparent bandage) on his body which must have prevented water from reaching the skin in wudhu that he had done before tawaf. Since he found the barrier on himself after the fact, he thinks that there is no need to repeat the wudhu or the tawaf. But this is incorrect; it is obligatory on him to repeat the wudhu as well as the tawaf since purity is one of the essential conditions of tawaf as mentioned earlier.
10. Sometime the pilgrim realizes that his tawaf was invalid after he had done the taqsir (which is the last of rituals of ‘umrah) and after he had changed into his normal clothes. As soon as he realizes that, he must remove his sewn clothes immediately and refrain from whatever was forbidden in the state of ihram. Then he should do the tawaf, the salat of tawaf, sa‘i and then taqsir. However, he does not have to go back to the miqat to renew his ihram.
11. Pushing, shoving and hurting other pilgrims in order to get closer to kiss the Black Stone is not at all appropriate for the guests of the Merciful Lord or even for the guests of others in their presence. The validity of the tawaf or hajj does not depend on kissing the Black Stone.
12. Sometimes the pilgrim entertains doubt in the number of rounds in a sunnat tawaf, and then he thinks that doubt in a sunnat tawaf invalidates his tawaf so he starts his tawaf anew. This is incorrect because he can always resolve the doubt by accepting the lesser number and then proceed with the rest of the rounds of tawaf.